Contract translation is more formal, rigorous and complex than other documents, and often involves some professional terms. What are the characteristics of contract translation shared by Shanghai Zhenyun artificial translation agency?
1. Use of professional terms
Because the business contract established by law is a legal document with legal binding force, the drafting of business contract is usually used to use legal words and contract terms, which have a single, clear, unambiguous meaning and have no emotional color.
2. Use of written language
As the business English contract should directly and clearly stipulate the rights, obligations and the exact meaning and scope of the code of conduct of all parties involved in the transaction, the business English contract often uses written words to reflect its formal and rigorous stylistic features.
3. Use of synonyms and juxtapositions
International business contracts strive to be formal and accurate, avoiding possible misunderstandings or differences, so the phenomenon of synonyms (synonyms) juxtaposition is very common. Pairs of synonyms have been used as idioms. These phrases all express some fixed meanings, which can't be separated at will in contract writing and translation. The use of this structure overcomes the ambiguity of meaning due to the multiple meanings of English words, and avoids both parties to understand the contract terms according to their own intentions, which reflects the solemnity and preciseness of the English contract language.
4. Use of ancient Chinese
Another characteristic of business contract language is the frequent use of ancient language. Archaic words are words with formal language style. These archaic English words can not only avoid repetition of words and long sentences, but also make contract sentences concise, accurate and persuasive.
5. Use of modal verbs
The purpose of signing a contract is to clarify the rights, obligations and responsibilities of both parties to avoid legal disputes. Therefore, most of the contract terms describe the "must do", "allowed to do" and "prohibited to do" of both parties. Therefore, modal verbs such as "shall, may, must, shall not, maynot" are often used. In addition to these words, they are used to indicate that Besides the coming tense, it has its special significance in law, so it needs to be translated carefully. Shall: in a contract, it is generally used to express the obligations on the contract, that is, what should be done. If it fails to perform, it shall be deemed as a breach of contract and bear some liability for compensation. Therefore, in the translation, shall usually means "should" or "must", may: in the contract, it is generally used to indicate the right, power or privilege on the contract, that is, what can be done. If it is used to indicate that a certain right is legally compulsory, the word "beientitled" is often used. Must: it is generally used in the case of legal coercion, that is, to indicate what must be done. The tone and coercion are stronger than shall. Will: it is generally used as a declaration of commitment when there is no legal force. Its tone and force are weaker than that of will. Should: Generally speaking, in a contract, it is only used to express the hypothesis with weaker tone. Most of them are translated into "in case" or "if", but few into "should". Maynot (or shall not): generally used in contracts to express prohibited obligations, that is, what can not be done. Most of the modal expressions in Business English contracts belong to the category of intention rather than modality. The use of finite modal verbs is concise and clear, avoiding disputes caused by ambiguity of contract terms.
6. Use of abbreviations
As we all know, some internationally accepted abbreviations are often used in business contracts. Therefore, it is very important to translate abbreviations in business.
(1) the country name can be abbreviated, but the road and street in the street name should not be abbreviated.
(2) it is better not to abbreviate the month name and the week name, only in order to save space when listing.
(3) it refers to the name of length, weight, area, volume and other units. Generally, abbreviations are not used. Abbreviations are only used when they are directly put together with numbers in the list, and there is no singular or plural.